Constantly on the move. Due to its physical state, transporting natural gas is a challenge
Around the globe, around the clock
Natural gas is used in large parts of the world, and needs to be transported over long distances, 24 hours a day. Gas pipelines and special purpose vessels are used for this purpose.
Most of the world’s natural gas is transported via underground pipelines. The diameter of the pipes is ranges from 20 cm to 1.4 m. The gas is sent along the pipelines at pressures of up to 84 bar, at an average speed of 8 m/sec or about 28 kph. Gas imports from Russia take about six days to reach the Baumgarten interconnection point in Austria.
Marine transportation is an alternative to gas pipelines. Here, the gas is cooled to minus 162°C at special terminals, turning it into liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG tanker routes are long, as this mode of transport is only economic at distances of over 3,500 km. The LNG is reconverted to gas at regasification terminals, and conveyed along pipelines to its ultimate destination. About one-sixth of world gas transportation is performed by LNG tankers.